Abuse is when the way others treat you becomes harmful to you. Abuse can take many forms, including emotional, physical or sexual. Therapy can help you address how this has made you feel and work through your feelings so you feel better about yourself.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
ADHD usually begins in early childhood but can continue into adulthood. Many adults are diagnosed with it too. Those affected may be hyperactive, impulsive or find it difficult to pay attention. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or behavioural therapy can help to change these behavioural patterns.
ADHD was previously known as attention deficit disorder (ADD).
Addiction happens when you become overly dependent on something, often when you’re trying to escape from other problems. You can be addicted to many things including:
- the internet
Therapy can help you address the causes of your addiction to help you stop your addictive behaviour.
Being adopted can directly affect you in many ways. You may:
- feel loss or rejection
- be confused and have split loyalties
- feel disappointed and depressed
- be in turmoil over how you feel
In therapy you can talk through how being adopted affects you, understand what you are thinking and explore the issues that you are experiencing.
AIDS and HIV
HIV is the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). It weakens your ability to fight infections. Having HIV does not always mean that you have AIDS, and it can take many years for AIDS to develop. HIV and AIDS cannot be cured but there are many ways you can stay healthy and live longer. Therapy can help by supporting you in dealing with the symptoms and reactions.
Anger is a normal emotion, but it can become uncontrollable and create problems for you, your family and your personal relationships. Anger can stop you thinking clearly, make you act impulsively, or may make you aggressive and violent towards others.
If you find it difficult to talk about how you feel, you may suppress your anger or turn it inwards. This can lead to problems such as:
- eating disorders
- self harm
- alcohol addiction
Therapy can help you find the cause of your anger and provide ways to control and change your behaviour.
Anxiety is common in mental illness or after extreme or distressing experiences. You may feel intense apprehension or worry, accompanied by acute physical signs such as:
- rapid heartbeat
Therapy can help you with anxiety, panic attacks and phobias by giving you ways of dealing with situations as they occur and exploring the cause of your feelings.
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
ASDs are lifelong development disabilities, which can cause difficulties with social interaction or restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour and interests. People can be affected in very different ways - some can live relatively unaffected lives while others need specialist support. Therapy can provide support for those living with autism and offer coping strategies. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is often a useful tool for people with Asperger's Syndrome.
Website content update
From 1 February 2023, the term Asperger's will no longer be used in any new content we create. Instead, we’ll be using the term autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This change is in line with the latest clinical practice, which has reclassified Asperger's as a form of ASD.
Our website has been updated to reflect this, but there may still be available content created prior to 1 February 2023, which uses the term Asperger's. This content will still be available on our website and in the Learning Centre as the overall learning still has value. When each piece of content is due to be reviewed, the terminology will be updated to the correct terms.
It is normal to feel angry, sad or lonely when a loved one dies or leaves. Even the loss of a pet can have a major psychological effect. Working through your feelings with a therapist can help you come to terms with your loss.
Bullying is when other people have the power to cause you pain and distress through abuse, threats and intimidation. It can include emotional, physical, verbal and cyber bullying and can happen at all ages - in families, education and at work. Therapy can be helpful for both the victim and the bully.
If you have cancer, you may feel anxious and stressed about the changes in your body or the effects of your treatment. You may be angry and find it difficult to cope with feelings of loss of control. It can help to talk through these feelings with a therapist, as your friends and family may be too close to the issues to see them clearly.
Therapy can also be helpful when a loved one has been diagnosed with cancer, helping you to come to terms with your fears and emotions.
You may benefit from career counselling when you are thinking about possible career movements or areas of study. A counsellor can help you set your personal goals and identify any factors likely to influence your decisions or affect your objectives. They will give you confidential guidance and help to ensure you are setting realistic targets for yourself and making positive career choices.
Child related issues
Children and young people, and their families, can sometimes need extra support if they are finding it difficult to deal with or understand their emotions or behaviour. Children can find it hard to express their worries, and unresolved problems may extend into their adult lives. More serious issues like abuse and mistreatment often require urgent specialist attention.
The NHS defines chronic pain as pain that continues for longer than 12 weeks despite medication or treatment. Others say it's pain that’s experienced over a long period of time or beyond the expected period of recovery or healing.
Doctors may say it's caused by nerve damage or an over-reactive nervous system response, such as in healed injuries or stress-related conditions. Or it may be due to conditions such as fibromyalgia, endometriosis, rheumatoid arthritis, ulcerative colitis or a spinal injury.
In our increasingly multi-cultural and multi-racial society, people may need help adjusting to their own and other cultures. Personal and professional relationships between different cultures challenge and put pressure on people to maintain their own identity and values which can cause:
- low self-esteem
- negative self image
- feelings of being different
Cultural counselling acknowledges the impact these issues can have on your wellbeing and may help you to cope with them.
If you're living with dementia, you may find it hard to make sense of what is happening to you and how your life is changing. You may feel angry, confused, afraid and anxious, and find it difficult to discuss your feelings with family and friends. If you are faced with dementia yourself, or for a close family member, you may find therapy allows you to speak frankly about your feelings and work out ways to live with the condition.
Depression can be a devastating illness that affects your body, mood, behaviour and thoughts. It is not a sign of weakness or failure, and it's not something that can be changed overnight. Without treatment, symptoms can be present for years, preventing you from functioning to your full ability. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) currently recommends a range of psychological therapies for the treatment of depression.
Therapy can help you get to know yourself better, clarify issues that matter to you and develop your potential. It gives you the opportunity to work in ways which promote your ability to resolve problems, or to develop coping skills for things which cannot be changed.
Eating disorders are extremely common and can be serious or even life threatening if not treated appropriately. People often use dieting, bingeing and purging start as a way to cope with painful emotions and to take control. But if these behaviours continue, they will damage your physical and emotional health and self-esteem. Therapy can be helpful in changing thoughts and expectations and in providing support and encouragement.
Eco and climate anxiety
Also known as climate anxiety, eco-anxiety refers to people’s stresses, fears and worries about the future of the planet and their feelings of hopelessness at the scale of the issue. While it is an issue caused by the wider systems (including economic, historical and social structures) that we live in, it is impacting a growing number of individuals.
Sometimes simply sitting down with someone who can help you put your feelings into perspective can be beneficial. In counselling, you can explore personal difficulties or feelings of dissatisfaction, and talk openly about aspects of your life, in a way that may not be possible with friends or family. Therapy can help you discover what is important to you, so you can live the kind of life you really want and improve your health and wellbeing.
If you have financial problems, you should seek financial advice as soon as possible. But it can also be helpful to discuss the emotional difficulties that debt may raise with a therapist.
There’s no correct way to feel when you’re grieving. Bereavement and loss affect people in different ways and cause different emotions, feelings and symptoms. Counselling can help you deal with a range of emotions, including anger, sadness, loneliness and guilt.
Therapy can help anyone who is generally worried about their health, or who needs help in coming to terms with being diagnosed with illness. Working through feelings such as 'why me?' can be beneficial to your quality of life.
Being unable to get pregnant, or having repeated miscarriages, causes many complex and painful emotions. Infertility treatments can also be physically uncomfortable, time-consuming and exhausting, placing great emotional demands on those involved. Talking to someone who is not directly involved can help you to come to terms with the situation.
Therapy can help you identify the skills and capabilities that you have, and use them to the best of your ability. It can make you better able to change things to:
- make your life run better
- realise ambitions
- fulfil your potential
- be happier
- be more successful
- be less stressed
- become more peaceful, sociable or fun
Loneliness is when you don't have the relationships and social connections you’d like. You don't have to be alone - even people with lots of friends and family can be lonely.
Loneliness can lead to anxiety and depression, and is associated with issues like low self-esteem, low self-confidence, stress and social anxiety. Counselling can help you to explore and understand how you’re feeling and give you coping skills to deal with your loneliness.
Loss is not just about death; you could also lose a relationship, a job or your health. Losing someone or something you love is very painful and you may experience many difficult and surprising emotions, such as shock, anger, grief and guilt. Therapy can help and support you through this difficult period of your life.
Menopause is a natural part of aging but can affect every woman differently. For some symptoms can last several years, impact on day-to-day activities and bring feelings of sadness, anxiety and low self-esteem. Therapy provides a safe space to help you understand what you are going through and develop strategies to cope.
Obsessions and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
Obsessions are usually unpleasant thoughts, pictures or impulses which come into mind when we don’t want them. Compulsions are the behaviours used to ‘put right’ or act on the obsession.
Most people have occasional intrusive, troubling thoughts, such as worrying that you've left the oven on, but some people can’t get rid of them. If you have OCD, you may have repeated obsessions and compulsions that seem very important and make you feel anxious. Therapy can help you put things in perspective and develop ways to deal with the triggers of OCD.
Older people's mental health is often overlooked, with much depression and anxiety in older adults unrecognised, undiagnosed and untreated. Counselling can be really effective in supporting healthy ageing and wellbeing, helping to make sense of life events and transitions that happen to those aged 50 plus.
Therapy can help you use knowledge, skills and experience to develop your self-esteem. This enables you to take responsibility for things like your:
- spiritual beliefs
A phobia is an irrational, intense, persistent fear of certain situations, activities, things or people. Therapy can help you manage these thoughts and put them into perspective.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychological and physical condition caused by a very frightening or distressing event. With PTSD, you often relive the event through nightmares and flashbacks. You may have problems concentrating and sleeping, and feel isolated and detached. The symptoms are often persistent and severe enough to have a significant impact on your day-to-day life. Several therapies can be helpful in coping with PTSD, including:
Pregnancy related issues
The experience of pregnancy, whether planned or unplanned, can be confusing and stressful, and may cause mixed feelings. For example, you may have concerns about how it could change your relationships. Therapy can help you understand your feelings towards your pregnancy, or explore difficult emotions following a miscarriage, stillbirth or termination.
Racism in all its different forms can take its toll on your mental health and wellbeing, causing stress, anxiety and loneliness. Counselling provides a safe space where you can explore your experiences, thoughts and feelings, helping you to process and heal from racial trauma.
Redundancy can lead to feelings of loss and confusion, as well as concerns about how to pay your bills. Therapy can help you work through issues of self-esteem and confidence, and the practicalities of redundancy.
Relationship counselling can help improve the way you relate to those around you and allow you to break free from old patterns of behaviour. This can cover all relationships, including couples and families.
If you have low self-esteem, you may view life in a negative way which makes things seem hopeless or pointless. You might think you are worthless, and that other people are better than you. You may have difficulty saying what you really feel, or you may lack the confidence to be assertive. As a result, you may feel that people take advantage of you and treat you badly. Therapy can help you explore the way you feel and change your view of yourself and others.
Self-harm can be a way of coping with painful and difficult feelings and distress. You may harm yourself because you feel overwhelmed and don’t know how else to deal with things. Therapy may help you discover and deal with the feelings that are causing you to self-harm.
Sex related issues
Sexual difficulties can occur at any time, especially during times of stress and change. If sex used to be exciting but no longer seems so, therapy can help you look at why the change happened. In a good relationship, getting help should give you an opportunity to find some answers.
Sexual abuse is when you are pressured to do something sexual against your will. It can include unwanted touching, photographs or rape. Some people blame themselves and do not report the abuse. Or they may have been influenced to trust the abuser or feel they will be punished for reporting it. Childhood abuse is not always addressed until sexual problems emerge in adulthood. Talking to a therapist can help.
Working out whether we are more comfortable in same sex or opposite sex relationships is part of our sexual identity. You may feel really sure about your sexual identity or it may be more fluid and changeable. Talking to a therapist can help you explore these feelings.
For many people, coming to terms with their sexuality can cause a lot of anxiety and heartache. You may know from an early age that you are lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender . Or you may feel confused about your sexuality and take longer to work out what seems right for you. Therapy may help you come to a decision or to deal with a decision that you have already made.
Social anxiety is a type of anxiety that relates to social situations. It can affect people when they talk to others – not just in large gatherings, but also when they're meeting new people at work or school. It can also affect one-to-one conversations and is sometimes called social anxiety disorder or social phobia.
Spirituality is about how you make sense of the world and find meaning in your life. It can, but does not necessarily, involve specific religious beliefs. Therapists who are experienced in spirituality can help you find inner peace and a deeper sense of meaning and belonging.
Stress can be a positive thing and help you achieve your goals. But too much stress can put your health at risk and lead to physical, mental and emotional problems. Therapy could help you to manage your life differently or support you in developing coping strategies.
Many kinds of emotional pain can lead to thoughts of suicide. You may reach a point at which you feel you can no longer cope. You may not truly wish to die, but you may need help at that moment. Therapy could help by allowing you to share your thoughts and feelings and work on ways to transform negative thoughts into more positive ones.
Emotional and psychological trauma can be the result of extraordinarily stressful events that shatter your sense of security, and make you feel helpless and vulnerable in a dangerous world. Trauma can be caused by a one-off event, such as a bad accident, a natural disaster or a violent attack. Or it can result from ongoing, relentless stress, such as living in a crime-ridden neighbourhood or struggling with major health issues. Talking to a therapist could help you.
The average person spends almost a quarter of their adult life at work. It can give you a sense of purpose, structure and satisfaction while also providing the means to finance daily life. It can also cause stress, frustration, poor health and self-esteem issues. If you start to lose sleep, constantly dread work or drink heavily, it may be useful to seek help from a therapist.
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What is counselling?
Find out how counselling works, what therapists do and what happens in a therapy session.
How to get therapy
Where and how you can get access to counselling and psychotherapy, including free and paid for services
Types of therapy
An A-Z list of the different approaches, modalities or ways of working within counselling and psychotherapy.